Studies of endangered California Ridgway’s rails in tidal marshes of San Francisco Bay indicated that predation accounted for 98% of identified deaths and avian predators were responsible for 64%. More deaths occurred on high tides during daylight hours, and rails may benefit from management that decreases their vulnerability to avian predators such as removing artificial perches or providing high tide refuges. See Casazza et al. (2017) under Science > References.